Peek Inside a Classroom: Effective Education Reform
Sandra L. Bloom, M.D. and Daun H. Kauffman M.Ed., M.B.A.
Classroom insights provided by Daun Kauffman are true vignettes.
“I feel hurt. My dad told me that I wasn’t his daughter if I couldn’t read better.” (Kerrie)
I (Daun) always started school days with my class by sharing a personal greeting and an optional hug with each student, as they entered the door of our room. They had a comforting routine with coats and backpacks and warmup work on the board ready for them. They knew that someone who knew them had prepared especially for them. Our personal, academic startup was paired with breakfast for everyone, courtesy of Title 1. Their comfortable familiarity with morning routines helped students with self-regulation in the transition to a classroom environment.
Teachers can learn too!
It seemed that we had a positive, caring beginning to our day of academics, but I often pushed the pace, especially when days overflowed with Lesson Plans.
That is, I felt that way until a friend who pioneered the development of the “Sanctuary Model,” Dr. Sandra Bloom, M.D., suggested an addition. With an ear-to-ear smile she pressed gently and politely and respectfully, but oh so firmly and confidently. She pressed her case to “add one question,” add “just one question”. Dr. Bloom waited for my response… pointedly and expectantly. She wanted me to try adding a “Community Meeting” to our daily startup. “Go around the entire classroom so each student participates: My name is ___. One word for my feelings this morning is ____.” Then listen.
I agreed, skeptically, thinking we already had a fine, “community” startup, and wondering where we’d find the time.
We started with learning the routine. I added some options to Dr. Bloom’s question: a) to ‘pass’, thinking that sometimes some of the kids would be dealing with weighty stuff, or b) to add a reason for their feeling or simply say “no reason”.
The first ten days, many simply shared “I feel happy. No reason”. Or “I feel sad. No reason”. So, I began to incorporate “feelings words” into our other vocabulary work and I bought a large wall poster with visualizations of feelings words. The kids began to be intrigued about “feelings”.
“Knowing” is not the same as “Understanding”
The “Community Meeting” in the Sanctuary Model “Toolkit” begins similarly, as part of building trauma-informed practice in any organization. Explicit acknowledgement of feelings as first priority, is embedded in establishing social norms of safety and caring for each person in the group.
In our classroom, “How are you feeling?” became central to developing community, to practicing clear oral communication, and to building class ‘norms.’.
It also generated undeniably invaluable learning about “feelings”.
Then, even more: reflecting, composing and communicating, those feelings.
But most importantly it moved us beyond factually “knowing” names. It became understanding feelings, understanding each other as people. Understanding ourselves better. Understanding motivations; our own and others. Myself understanding children and their childhood traumas. “Social literacy.”
If you haven’t heard of “developmental” or “childhood trauma”, I understand. I hadn’t heard of it either. Not in any university class, nor from my District. I had to discover it on my own. (Click here for more on “The Elephant in the [Class]Room”).
Building understanding does require investments of time and labor. We didn’t achieve it for free. We invested about 20 minutes from our already packed schedule. A real risk in context of the district’s tightly circumscribed regimen. Nevertheless, we prioritized that time to listen to each other. We had more learning to do. We had to learn to listen: Not interrupting, not even politely questioning.
Ultimately, it started with all of us being “in the moment”
Immeasurable, but invaluable
We progressed to “I have two (!) feelings.” Kids asking “can I share them both?” (with much elaboration).
No one ever “passed.”
We progressed: All of this investment steadily reinforced norms of a socially literate, caring, student-centered classroom culture with a common understanding of goals. The value becomes obvious when we move on to academic topics
We progressed to Kerrie, eyes brimming, “I feel hurt. My dad told me that I wasn’t his daughter if I couldn’t read better.”
Should understanding Kerrie’s pain change how literacy was taught that day and beyond? Could we be successful without understanding?
DeShawn, squirming with anticipation, “I feel excited. We’re going to see my dad this weekend for my birthday.” (Later sharing privately: “he’s “away” at the state prison. He did something really bad…”).
Would Math or Social Studies lessons be different after that new understanding? Would we be successful without understanding?
Starr, trying to appear nonchalant, “I feel sad. I miss my dad. He’s in the hospital again for figh.. [Starr cut herself off]… no he didn’t really fight this time. He just banged his head on the car real bad.” Long pause. “My mom can’t pick me up after school, so my sister [3rd grade] will. We can walk by ourselves.”
Should my understanding of Starr’s behaviors and motivations be more aligned with the “Common Core” and ‘National Standards’ or should I adjust national standards to be aligned with Starr’s core?
More from the same classroom: “I feel sad, I don’t know what to do! My mom’s hair is falling out from the cancer”. Or another: “I’m scared. My tia was shot this weekend. The bullet is behind her eye.”
Kerrie, DeShawn, Starr and the others are not unusual. Childhood trauma affects 2 out of 3 students at some level. That’s way too many (one is too many) to ignore.
Our School Reform Commission(SRC) in Philadelphia, and other “reformers” across our nation, command “standardized” learning — an illogical, inconceivable goal. Be assured, from the reality of the front line in the classroom, that students are all unique…. people. They each have a unique heart and a unique mind, attached intimately, inextricably to their whole, unique life. Not better or worse than one another, just unique.
Children can not and do not learn in “standardized”, robotic fashion, or synchronized timing.
It’s clear to educators: academic success in any classroom at any age has to be whole-student-centered, not “standardized”, nor datapoint-centered.
Back to Community Meetings: I usually shared my feelings too. If a long weekend was coming, I shared two (!) contrasting feelings: the excitement of the break and the sadness at missing each one in our class. I often shared explicitly that I loved each one in the class. Sometimes I shared feelings about my own children when I was going to see them soon, or sometimes how I missed them. My students wanted to understand me as a father and as a grandfather, not just as a talking head “presenter”.
Let me paraphrase the quote attributed to Theodore Roosevelt: Students don’t care how much you know until they know how much you care.
It does go both ways:
On the days I dared try to skip our Community Meeting, I was immediately, verbally hounded. Even If I only forgot (or intentionally skipped) only myself, the kids raced, almost tripping over each other to ask: “Mr. Kauffman, how are you feeling today?… No, really, How are you feeling?”
Powerful learning, powerful understanding grew all around our classroom.
Implications in our trauma-impacted world
Our learning was such a great story. Really.
But I can’t stop here with a feel-good story. The Community Meeting is only the first step in the Toolbox towards a trauma-informed system.
We all live in very violent, dysfunctional times.
Statistics tell us that 25% to 50% of students in all schools are dealing with life-changing levels of developmental, or “childhood”, trauma.
Neuroscience tells us that unaddressed developmental trauma and toxic stress change the architecture of the physical brain and secondly, social behaviors.
Cognition, or learning, is impaired by developmental trauma. For some of those children in ‘survival mode’, academics are impossible, “in the moment.”
Experts call developmental trauma a ‘national crisis’, an ‘epidemic’. Yet, it’s the elephant in all our classrooms. Developmental trauma is not a poverty issue. It’s not a “color” issue. It’s not a geography issue. It is not an income issue.
Developmental trauma is an education-equity issue.
Developmental trauma is an ‘achievement gap’ issue, given its skew to high stress, higher violence urban areas.
It gets worse.
Biological and social adaptations to childhood trauma will affect our health throughout our lifetimes, and can lead to early death.
Effective education reform reform begins with recognizing the whole child and remains child-centered. The priority on National “standards” (funded locally) is in direct conflict with equity in a setting with real live, unique human children in so many ways….”
Effective reform will prioritize training and support (on-going) for school-wide staffs, so they understand and can accommodate millions of trauma-impacted children nationally. Community Meetings can be integral to becoming whole-student-centered and trauma-informed.
At the school level, effective reform includes identifying, or in some way screening for, students’ trauma histories. It’s too easy and too tempting to miss those who are quietly dissociating. We should also be re-evaluating zero-tolerance discipline. We should also be adjusting efforts against the “achievement gap” to areas with greater violence, stress and trauma. We should also be understanding the disconnect between regimented, time-based national standards and infinitely unique human unique learning processes. We should also be understanding the illogical impotence of “standardized” test-and-punish model for academics.
Without effective reform, students have valid claim that we haven’t given them equal access to learning. Millions of students.
Listening is integral to effective reform.
We all have much to learn, much to care about, much to understand.
If you agree, ask someone else “How are you feeling?”,
and then simply listen.
All student insights in the “Peek Inside a Classroom” series use pseudonyms in true stories.
“Like” us at “Trauma-Informed Schools” on Facebook
For more on developmental trauma, in short, true vignettes, click on the narrative series below, “Nowhere to Hide”:
“Nowhere to Hide” series overview
“Nowhere to Hide” series links
Each separate, individual article in the series focuses on a single component of the workings of developmental trauma, via real life examples in short “60 second” soundbites, akin to “Public Service Announcements” (PSAs). They are designed for sharing in social media networks to grow public awareness.
The children’s experiences in the vignettes are unvarnished. Their traumatic responses may trigger painful memories.
“PSA” Links for social media
Nowhere to Hide: Maria; Fight, flight or freeze
Nowhere to Hide: Andre’s Fear; What are Adverse Childhood Experiences?
Nowhere to Hide: Jamar’s Hyper-arousal
Nowhere to Hide: Roberto’s Dissociation
Nowhere to Hide: Danny’s Memory
Nowhere to Hide: Ashley’s “Normal” Education? Part 1
Nowhere to Hide: Ashley’s “Normal” Education? Part 2
More to come
“Like” us at “Trauma-Informed Schools” on Facebook
Please share a PSA link to help grow public awareness of the impacts of developmental trauma. There are so many of us who’ve never heard of the overpowering life-long impacts.
“Peek Inside a Classroom” series overview
The second original series, “Peek Inside a Classroom”, provides much more detailed looks inside my classroom, primarily focused on specific students: Jasmine, Danny and José.
Other children are captured in broader looks at education reform concepts: “Failing Schools or Failing Paradigm?” and “Effective Education Reform”, co-authored with Sandra L. Bloom, M. D..
“Peek Inside a Classroom” series links
Peek Inside a Classroom: Jasmine
Peek Inside a Classroom: Danny
Peek Inside a Classroom: Failing Schools or Failing Paradigm?
Peek Inside a Classroom: Effective Education Reform (with Sandra Bloom, M.D.)
“Click for Resources…” series overview:
“Click for Resources” posts are the theory and research behind the narrative posts in “Nowhere to Hide” and “Peek Inside a Classroom”.
Each post in “Click for Resources “ is divided in three parts:
1) general press articles,
2) Research Journals or academic papers
3) social media, often with video.
“Click for Resources” series links:
1. Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Studies: CLICK HERE
2. Impacts of Childhood Trauma: Overview CLICK HERE
Click for Resources: Social Media on Impacts of Childhood Trauma
Click for Resources: Journal Articles on Impacts of Developmental Trauma
3. Trauma-Informed Schools CLICK HERE
4. Trauma-Informed Social Services CLICK HERE
5. Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice CLICK HERE
6. Trauma-Informed Public Policy CLICK HERE
7. Childhood Trauma Training and Tools CLICK HERE
8. Book and Publication selections CLICK HERE
9. #800 phone numbers CLICK HERE
Developmental trauma, still “the elephant in the [class] room” for many adults.
“Like” us at “Trauma-Informed Schools” on Facebook
32 thoughts on “Peek Inside a Classroom: Effective Education Reform”
I am truly in love with your approach, blog. It’s a wonderful, current(!), grounded, experiential encapsulation of many things I try to teach practitioner/facilitators, parents, teachers whenever I have the opportunity. Brava and thank you – I am still hopeful we will be hearing from you; Eric Huurre and I are excited to collude with you! Jondi Whitis
The power of being allowed to share feelings with others!
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Thank you so much for the kind words Diane!
Well, since you said please–you offer an important message and good strategies. Your formatting made it extremely difficult for me to read. May look prettier on the page to you, but I had to force myself not to bail out at those long white spaces.
Okay. I worked on it a little bit. I hope it helps. Thanks for the suggestion. 🙂
I am glad too see this worked well in the classroom. I primarily work with teens and used-One up and one down to check-in. They start off very general at first, but then they begin to warm up.
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Just discovered your blog and your work. Thank you so much for your passionate and caring words and for taking the time to put your practice out there to inspire and educate others. Thank you even more for standing up for children and young people. I agree with you, this is urgent. The evidence is clear. I am regularly heart broken that we need evidence to validate being kind to children but I am also delighted that all the evidence points towards the need for love and respect and that must change our culture. Thank you for being part of that.
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Thank you Jo! Encouragement is so refreshing in this struggle.🙂
This was so powerful, and I’m grateful for the way you chronicled the progression of your students opening up! Teachers’ goals for their students must be holistic and relational. The ‘lessons’ and ‘benchmarks’ that are learned in a relational context are so much more profound and impactful than the whatever lessons would come from a ‘washed-down’, apathetic context.
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Thank you so much for your encouragement Philip! We are not teaching desks and chairs, which can be objectified. We are teaching and learning with fellow human beings. Unfortunately, most education “reformers” haven’t worked in a classroom and tend to be care-less or oblivious.
Thoughts on this Article:
I had not fully realized before that childhood trauma not only damages the students’ emotional processing, but also their ability to express this process.
When looking at the morning routine – namely the prompt, “one word for my feelings is ___,” I thought of it at first as a platform for the students to share what they were feeling and to receive the support they need.
However, after reflecting more on the psychological damage that ACE’s wreak on a child’s mind, it dawned on me that these questions can be considered *practice* for the children. They do not already understand what they are feeling and why, and they must have the space to practice talking about it. Making these kinds of exercises routine for a classroom builds students’ emotional intelligence the same way it builds their other forms of intelligence – a consistent exercising of the mind.
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Thank you so much for reflecting and engaging philipian blog. It absolutely serves as practice. The wall poster is specifically to scaffold naming their experiences and sensations (and it continues to create “practice discussions” throught the day). I could not agree more!